Juno is the Roman Queen of the Gods, Goddess of women and protectress of the state. She is often associated with the Greek Hera and the Etruscan Goddesses Uni or Cupra. Together with Jupiter and Minerva she was part of the Capitoline Triad of the primary Gods of Rome and is the mother of Mars the tutelary God of Rome.
The month June is named for Her and the first day of each month, the Kalends, is dedicated to Her.
The name Juno may derive from the Latin iuvere, meaning “to aid” or “to benefit” or from the Latin iūnix meaning “heifer”, iuvenes meaning “young people”, or possibly Iove referring to “love” or iuuen referring to a vital force or life energy.
According to some interpretations of Roman tradition, all women had a guardian spirit called a juno.
Iconography and Symbolism
Juno is pictured as a stately woman wearing a goatskin cloak and in the company of a peacock. The goatskin cloak showed her affiliation with the Roman military. Juno’s sacred birds were the goose and the peacock; her sacred plant is the wild fig tree.
Epithets of Juno
- Regina – Queen
- Mater Regina – Queen Mother
- Pronuba – Goddess of Marriage
- Cinxia – she who looses the bride’s girdle
- Moneta – She who warns
- Tutula – Protector
- Lucina – “light” as Goddess of Childbirth
- Sospita – The Savior
Festivals Dedicated to Juno
- Nonae Caprotinae