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What is Earth Based Spirituality: Earth (Gaia) as a Deity

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Written by: Dawn Black (Witchipedia)


Reviewed by: Tina Caro

Earth-based spirituality is a spiritual and religious worldview that puts the Earth in the center of the spiritual practice. Some of these paths view the Earth as divine and may refer to the Earth as their Mother Goddess.

In this case the Earth may be the primary or only deity, or She may be part of a larger family of deities.


Earth-based spirituality centers on the belief that the Earth itself is a deity, often referred to as Mother Goddess, with diverse interpretations within different traditions.

Gaian Spirituality, inspired by the Gaia Hypothesis, views the Earth as a living organism, not a traditional god, fostering a connection between humans and the planet as an integral part of nature.

Earth-based spiritualities often incorporate the concept of sacred activism, with figures like Starhawk exemplifying individuals who advocate for environmental causes as a spiritual duty.

Many Earth-based spiritualities are Pantheist or Panentheist, and some are Atheist in nature. A notable example includes Gaian Spirituality or Gaianism which is based on the Gaia Hypothesis. In this case the Earth or Gaia is like an organism that we are all a part of, but not a God in the traditional sense.

Many Earth-based spiritualities incorporate aspects of the Gaia Hypothesis, whether they believe Gaia to be an actual Goddess or an actual organism. While Gaia is a popular name for the EarthMother, there are many others in different traditions but by whatever name She is called, it would seem that the Earth is almost always personified as female.

Many members of Earth-based spiritual and religious traditions are proponents of Sacred Activism in environmental areas. Starhawk is a notable example.

Most, but not all Pagan religions can be considered Earth-based. The Wheel of the Year is a liturgical calendar used by many modern Pagans based upon the seasonal cycles of Nature that suggests an Earth-honoring worldview is often born out by the individual religion’s Pantheon and value system.

For More Information Visit

Beliefnet’s Pagan & Earth Based Religions Page

About Morningbird (Witchipedia's Founder)

I am a homesteading hearth witch who grew up along the shores of the Hudson River and has lived among the Great Lakes for the past 20 years. Together with my musical husband and youngest child, I steward a one-acre mini homestead with herb, vegetable and flower gardens, chickens, ducks, geese and rabbits, and areas reserved for native plants and wildlife. 

I have three children; two are grown, and I have been practicing magick alone and with family and friends for over 30 years.

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