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By Witchipedia, Magical Religions and Spiritual Paths

What is Duotheism: The Belief in Two Gods

Updated on:


Written by: Dawn Black (Witchipedia)


Reviewed by: Tina Caro

Duotheism is the belief in two Gods, whether they are two complimentary Gods working together or two competitive Gods, as in a creator and a destroyer.

See also Dualism

When discussing paganism, we often think of its classic form in ancient civilizations like the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. However, modern paganism has evolved to align with today’s society and more contemporary beliefs.

Practitioners of “Neopaganism” are sometimes misunderstood, leading to misconceptions and negative stereotypes, especially from certain religious groups like Christians.


Duotheism is a belief system centered around the worship of two distinct deities, often representing contrasting or complementary forces in the universe.

It finds its roots in various ancient cultures and religions, with notable examples in Egyptian, Norse, and Hindu mythologies.

Wicca, a modern pagan witchcraft tradition, incorporates duotheistic principles with the veneration of the God and Goddess as central figures in their spiritual practice.

Unlike monotheism, duotheism embraces the idea of multiple deities, with each deity holding a unique domain and significance.

Duotheism can coexist with other spiritual beliefs, allowing practitioners to incorporate aspects of it into their broader religious framework, fostering a diverse and inclusive perspective on spirituality.

Dual Deities in Duotheism

In “Modern Paganism,” various cults come together, some divided into traditions or paths. Key features of “Neopaganism” include polytheism or the concept of a “goddess” and “god” (duotheism) for some.

Philosophical and Theological Perspectives

It’s crucial to comprehend the irreducible duotheistic concept in Wicca. This system attempts to synthesize ancestral polytheism into a divine couple. While it may be more accessible than delving into ancient mythologies, it rejects the idea of a single god or primordial force behind the Wiccan God and Goddess.

Belief SystemDescription
WiccaWicca, a modern pagan religion, often follows a duotheistic belief in a God and Goddess.
ZoroastrianismZoroastrianism, an ancient religion, believes in a dualistic worldview with Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu as opposing forces.
CatharismCatharism, a medieval Christian sect, held a belief in a Good God and an Evil God.
Some Native American TraditionsCertain Native American tribes have a duotheistic belief in a Creator God and a Trickster God.
HellenismosHellenismos, the ancient Greek religion, acknowledged the Olympian Gods as a duotheistic pantheon.
Table 1: Table: Duotheistic Belief Systems

In paganism, the concept of dualities, like masculine and feminine, is essential for nature’s sacredness. These two entities are immanent, part of nature, not external or transcendent. Any notion of transcendent entities conflicts with the foundation of Paganism, which honors the cult of nature and the religion based on the Earth.

Pagan traditions view the Primordial Chaos as the antithesis of the Cosmos, not a god itself. Unfortunately, some individuals try to promote a diluted version of Wicca to avoid conflicts with Christians, but this undermines the true essence of paganism.

A pentacle formerly belonging to the Wiccans Janet and Stewart Farrar on display in the Museum of Witchcraft and Magic, Boscastle, Cornwall.

It’s crucial not to replace ancestral gods with Christian figures like Christ or the Virgin Mary. Jesus of Nazareth was a historical figure, a carpenter turned rabbi with messianic aspirations, and Mary was a regular woman from Roman Palestine.

Transcendent entities cannot play the role of the male deity in paganism, as they were perceived as exclusive and unnatural. By understanding these notions and avoiding misconceptions, pagans can stay true to their beliefs and honor nature’s divinity.

The Origins of the Concept

Both in the East and in Greco-Roman philosophy, the absolute is beyond description and not the cause or origin of anything. It is simply the ultimate essence of Existence.

Equating the Absolute with a single god or monotheism is not valid in Wiccan duotheism or pagan polytheism. For pagans, the totality is Nature itself, its ultimate expression.

Wicca and Duotheism

In Wicca, there are two deities, a God and a Goddess, without any other higher entity. They are not prophets or figures from Judeo-Christian beliefs.

SymbolOften associated with the Sun, sky, and masculine elementsOften associated with the Moon, earth, and feminine elements
AttributesRepresents power, strength, protection, and guidanceRepresents fertility, nurturing, intuition, and wisdom
ArchetypesMay embody roles such as the Warrior, Father, and CreatorMay embody roles such as the Mother, Maiden, and Crone
Seasonal AssociationsOften linked to the Oak King and associated with the waxing half of the yearOften linked to the Holly King and associated with the waning half of the year
Table 2: Table: Characteristics of the God and Goddess in Duotheistic Beliefs

Completely breaking away from Christian conditioning is a challenge for Wiccans and pagans. It is a necessary process for embracing duotheism and paganism fully.


What is the difference between duotheism and monotheism?

Duotheism involves two deities, while monotheism centers around a single god.

Are there any famous duotheistic religions or sects?

Wicca is the most well-known duotheistic religion.

Can duotheism coexist with other religious or spiritual beliefs?

No, duotheism is self-contained and does not blend with other beliefs.

How do duotheists view gender and gender roles?

Duotheism acknowledges the duality and polarity of genders.

Is duotheism a form of paganism?

Yes, duotheism falls under the umbrella of paganism.


Understanding duotheism is essential for those drawn to this religious and philosophical perspective. By educating oneself, individuals can deepen their connection and awareness of duotheism in both their witchcraft practice and daily life.

Embracing this vision allows for a more profound bond with nature and the divine couple at the core of Wicca.

About Morningbird (Witchipedia's Founder)

I am a homesteading hearth witch who grew up along the shores of the Hudson River and has lived among the Great Lakes for the past 20 years. Together with my musical husband and youngest child, I steward a one-acre mini homestead with herb, vegetable and flower gardens, chickens, ducks, geese and rabbits, and areas reserved for native plants and wildlife. 

I have three children; two are grown, and I have been practicing magick alone and with family and friends for over 30 years.

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